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Brains are most simply compared in terms of their size. The relationship between brain size , body size and other variables has been studied across a wide range of vertebrate species. As a rule, brain size increases with body size, but not in a simple linear proportion. In general, smaller animals tend to have larger brains, measured as a fraction of body size. For mammals, the relationship between brain volume and body mass essentially follows a power law with an exponent of about . [32] This formula describes the central tendency, but every family of mammals departs from it to some degree, in a way that reflects in part the complexity of their behavior. For example, primates have brains 5 to 10 times larger than the formula predicts. Predators tend to have larger brains than their prey, relative to body size. [33]

In the presence of air and various cofactors and enzymes, fatty acids are degraded to acetyl-CoA . The pathway is called beta-oxidation . Each cycle of beta-oxidation shortens the fatty acid chain by two carbon atoms and produces one equivalent each of NADH and one FADH 2 . The NADH and FADH 2 are used to generate ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Dozens of ATP equivalents are generated by the beta-oxidation of a single long acyl chain. [20] The acetyl-CoA produced by beta-oxidation can be subsequently metabolized by the citric acid cycle, yielding further equivalents of ATP.

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