RESULTS: A total of 151 records were identified by systematic review and 42 studies with a total of 1495 healthy young women (age range: 18-40 years) were included in the meta-analysis. All included studies were experimental studies and 21 were non-comparative. Pooling of the results derived from all the included papers showed that total T levels significantly decreased during COC use [mean difference (MD) (95% confidence interval, CI) - nmol/l (-, -); P < ]. Significantly lower levels of free T were also found [relative change (95% CI) (, ); P < ], with a mean decrease of 61%. On the contrary, SHBG concentrations significantly increased during all types of COC use [MD (95% CI) nmol/l (, ); P < ]. Subgroup analyses revealed that COCs containing 20-25 µg EE had similar effects on total and free T compared with COCs with 30-35 µg EE. In addition, suppressive effects on T levels were not different when comparing different types of progestins. However, subgroup analyses for the estrogen dose and the progestin type in relation to changes in SHBG levels did show significant differences: COCs containing second generation progestins and/or the lower estrogen doses (20-25 µg EE) were found to have less impact on SHBG concentrations.
The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression".   Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible.  The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game.  Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males.