Treatment of adipocytes with RK suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. RK suppressed the expression of major genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα), which led to further down-regulation of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein-2 (aP2). In addition, treatment with 10 μM of RK also reduced mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). In mature adipocytes, RK increased the transcriptional activities of genes involved in lipolysis and the oxidative pathways including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1B (CPT1B).
Since the potty provision's inception, however, tennis players have been exploiting the pee-break rule for strategic advantage, proving there is no level elite athletes will not stoop, or squat, to in order to gain the slightest advantage. In the 2010 Australian Open, after losing the first set of his quarterfinal match, Federer killed time in the can while allowing the blinding sun to dip below the stands. In 2012, Andy Murray won the first two sets of his . Open finals match, but when the next two slipped away, he sheepishly signaled to the umpire and tiptoed off the court, disappearing into a one-toilet restroom under Arthur Ashe Stadium. As the crowd and Novak Djokovic waited, Murray later told The New York Times , he stood alone in front of the mirror screaming at his reflection, "You are not going to let this one slip." He was speaking of the match (one presumes), which he battled back to win after one of the most fortuitous pee breaks in sports history.