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The purposes of the present study were to investigate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on testosterone levels in vitro on a cell line derived from Leydig cells (R2C) and in vivo in the blood of physically active subjects before and after a resistance exercise bout. In vitro R2C cells were treated with different CLA concentrations (0-30 μM) for 24 and 48 hours. After treatment, supernatant media were tested to determine testosterone secretion. The CLA increased the testosterone secretion only after 48 hours. In vivo, 10 resistance-trained male subjects, in a double-blind placebo-controlled and crossover study design were randomized for 3 weeks of either 6 g·d⁻¹ CLA or placebo. Blood was drawn pre and post each resistance exercise bout to determine the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels. No significant differences were observed for total testosterone or SHBG pre and post each resistance exercise bout; although after the resistance exercise bouts, total testosterone increased moderately (effect size = moderate), whereas after CLA supplementation, there was a large increase in total testosterone (effect size = large). CLA supplementation induced an increase in testosterone levels in Leydig cells in vitro after 48 hours but not in vivo before and after a resistance exercise bout. These findings suggest that CLA supplementation may promote testosterone synthesis through a molecular pathway that should be investigated in the future, although this effect did not have an anabolic relevance in our in vivo model.