Robert L. Forward, “Antiproton Annihilation Propulsion”, University of Dayton, 1985.
The . Army also had a nuclear power program , beginning in 1954. The SM-1 Nuclear Power Plant, at Fort Belvoir , Virginia , was the first power reactor in the . to supply electrical energy to a commercial grid (VEPCO), in April 1957, before Shippingport. The SL-1 was a . Army experimental nuclear power reactor at the National Reactor Testing Station in eastern Idaho . It underwent a steam explosion and meltdown in January 1961, which killed its three operators.  In the Soviet Union at The Mayak Production Association facility there were a number of accidents, including an explosion, that released 50–100 tonnes of high-level radioactive waste, contaminating a huge territory in the eastern Urals and causing numerous deaths and injuries. The Soviet regime kept this accident secret for about 30 years. The event was eventually rated at 6 on the seven-level INES scale (third in severity only to the disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima ).