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© 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Stallion spermatozoa continue to present scientific and clinical challenges with regard to the biological mechanisms responsible for their survival and function. In particular, deeper understanding of sperm energy metabolism, defence against oxidative damage and cell-cell interactions should improve fertility assessment and the application of advanced reproductive technologies in the equine species. In this study, we used highly sensitive LC-MS/MS technology and sequence database analysis to identify and characterise the proteome of Percoll-isolated ejaculated equine spermatozoa, with the aim offurthering our understanding of this cell's complex biological machinery. We were able to identify 9883 peptides comprising 1030 proteins, which were subsequently attributed to 975 gene products. Gene ontology analysis for molecular and cellular processes revealed new information about the metabolism, antioxidant defences and receptors of stallion spermatozoa. Mitochondrial proteins and those involved in catabolic processes constituted dominant categories. Several enzymes specific to ß-oxidation of fatty acids were identified, and further experiments were carried out to ascertain their functional significance. Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme of ß-oxidation, reduced motility parameters, indicating that b-oxidation contributes to maintenance of motility in stallion spermatozoa.

Naringenin's potential antibacterial and antifungal behaviour has been investigated. In 1987, it was reported that naringenin had no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis . [31] This finding was not replicated in a 2000 study in which naringenin was shown to indeed have an antimicrobial effect on S. epidermidis , as well as Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Micrococcus luteus , and Escherichia coli . [32] Further research has added evidence for antimicrobial effects against Lactococcus lactis , [33] lactobacillus acidophilus , Actinomyces naeslundii , Prevotella oralis , Prevotella melaninogencia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , [34] as well as yeasts such as Candida albicans , Candida tropicalis , and Candida krusei . [35] There is also evidence of antibacterial effects on H. pylori , though naringenin has not been shown to have any inhibition on urease activity of the microbe. [36]

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