Testosterone 5

The manufacturers of certain testosterone products (., AndroGel and Striant) state that their products are contraindicated in patients with soybean, soy, or soya lecithin hypersensitivity because they are derived partially from soy plants. There is a risk of serious hypersensitivity reactions or anaphylaxis with the use of testosterone undecanoate (Aveed) oil for injection. These allergic reactions can occur after any injection of testosterone undecanoate during the course of therapy, including after the first dose. Observe patients in the healthcare setting for 30 minutes after an Aveed injection in order to provide appropriate medical treatment in the event of serious hypersensitivity reactions or anaphylaxis. The Aveed injection contains benzyl benzoate, the ester of benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid, and refined castor oil. Therefore, testosterone undecanoate use is contraindicated in patients with polyoxyethylated castor oil hypersensitivity, benzoic acid hypersensitivity, or benzyl alcohol hypersensitivity. Patients with suspected hypersensitivity reactions should not be re-treated with testosterone undecanoate injection.

The male reproductive tract has been identified as a target tissue for vitamin D, and previous data suggest an association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with testosterone levels in men. We therefore aimed to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation influences testosterone levels in men. Healthy overweight men undergoing a weight reduction program who participated in a randomized controlled trial were analyzed for testosterone levels. The entire study included 200 nondiabetic subjects, of whom 165 participants (54 men) completed the trial. Participants received either 83 μg (3,332 IU) vitamin D daily for 1 year (n = 31) or placebo (n =2 3). Initial 25(OH)D concentrations were in the deficiency range (< 50 nmol/l) and testosterone values were at the lower end of the reference range (- nmol/l for males aged 20-49 years) in both groups. Mean circulating 25(OH)D concentrations increased significantly by nmol/l in the vitamin D group, but remained almost constant in the placebo group. Compared to baseline values, a significant increase in total testosterone levels (from ± nmol/l to ± nmol/l; p < ), bioactive testosterone (from ± nmol/l to ± nmol/l; p = ), and free testosterone levels (from ± nmol/l to ± nmol/l; p = ) were observed in the vitamin D supplemented group. By contrast, there was no significant change in any testosterone measure in the placebo group. Our results suggest that vitamin D supplementation might increase testosterone levels. Further randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm this hypothesis.

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [77] [78] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [77] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [79] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [80] [81] [82] [83] [84]

In addition to growth hormone (GH), sex hormones are important determinants of body composition. Aging is accompanied by a decrease in free testosterone levels and, as BMI as well as fat mass increase with age (with a redistribution of body fat), whereas muscle mass decreases, it is tempting to attribute a causal role to the decrease in androgen levels. In our study involving 372 males aged >20-85, age was found to be positively correlated with BMI and fat mass as measured by impedance, and negatively correlated with levels of free testosterone and free insulin-like growth factor-I. Multiple regression analysis revealed that BMI and age were independent determinants of testosterone levels. The latter decreased from 598+/-188 (SD) ng/dl in the young controls to 453+/-161 ng/dl in the elderly group, free testosterone decreasing from +/- to +/- ng/dl. Fat-free mass decreased by %. In a subgroup of 57 men aged 70-80 years, testosterone levels correlated negatively with percentage body fat (r=-), abdominal fat (r=-) and plasma insulin levels (r=-). As GH levels and pulsatility also decrease with age and as, moreover, androgens amplify endogenous secretion of GH, it is not easy to determine the relative role of androgen deficiency in the age-associated changes in body composition. Moreover, increase in fat mass (obesity), as occurs in aging males, is in itself associated with low levels of free testosterone and GH which both normalize after weight reduction. The role of testosterone in the age-associated changes in body composition is, however, further suggested by the increase in lean body mass and in mid-arm circumference and the decrease in waist-to-hip ratio observed after testosterone treatment of elderly men with decreased testosterone levels. Also in healthy eugonadal men, testosterone treatment, at least in supraphysiological doses, causes an important increase in fat-free mass (+/-10%) and in muscle size. The changes in muscle volume are associated with an increase in muscle fibre diameter, suggesting that testosterone induces muscle cell hypertrophy. In conclusion, aging in males is accompanied by an important increase in fat mass and a decrease in lean body mass. Several indices of body composition are significantly correlated with plasma testosterone levels before and after correction for BMI and age. It is evident, however, that in addition to testosterone levels, the age-associated somatopause is also a determinant of the changes in body composition.

Testosterone 5

testosterone 5

In addition to growth hormone (GH), sex hormones are important determinants of body composition. Aging is accompanied by a decrease in free testosterone levels and, as BMI as well as fat mass increase with age (with a redistribution of body fat), whereas muscle mass decreases, it is tempting to attribute a causal role to the decrease in androgen levels. In our study involving 372 males aged >20-85, age was found to be positively correlated with BMI and fat mass as measured by impedance, and negatively correlated with levels of free testosterone and free insulin-like growth factor-I. Multiple regression analysis revealed that BMI and age were independent determinants of testosterone levels. The latter decreased from 598+/-188 (SD) ng/dl in the young controls to 453+/-161 ng/dl in the elderly group, free testosterone decreasing from +/- to +/- ng/dl. Fat-free mass decreased by %. In a subgroup of 57 men aged 70-80 years, testosterone levels correlated negatively with percentage body fat (r=-), abdominal fat (r=-) and plasma insulin levels (r=-). As GH levels and pulsatility also decrease with age and as, moreover, androgens amplify endogenous secretion of GH, it is not easy to determine the relative role of androgen deficiency in the age-associated changes in body composition. Moreover, increase in fat mass (obesity), as occurs in aging males, is in itself associated with low levels of free testosterone and GH which both normalize after weight reduction. The role of testosterone in the age-associated changes in body composition is, however, further suggested by the increase in lean body mass and in mid-arm circumference and the decrease in waist-to-hip ratio observed after testosterone treatment of elderly men with decreased testosterone levels. Also in healthy eugonadal men, testosterone treatment, at least in supraphysiological doses, causes an important increase in fat-free mass (+/-10%) and in muscle size. The changes in muscle volume are associated with an increase in muscle fibre diameter, suggesting that testosterone induces muscle cell hypertrophy. In conclusion, aging in males is accompanied by an important increase in fat mass and a decrease in lean body mass. Several indices of body composition are significantly correlated with plasma testosterone levels before and after correction for BMI and age. It is evident, however, that in addition to testosterone levels, the age-associated somatopause is also a determinant of the changes in body composition.

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