Zinc undecylenate tinea versicolor

Resistance to ketoconazole has been observed in a number of clinical fungal isolates, including Candida albicans . Experimentally, resistance usually arises as a result of mutations in the sterol biosynthesis pathway. Defects in the sterol 5-6 desaturase enzyme reduce the toxic effects of azole inhibition of the 14-alpha demethylation step. Multidrug-resistance (MDR) genes can also play a role in reducing cellular levels of the drug. As azole antifungals all act at the same point in the sterol pathway, resistant isolates are normally cross-resistant to all members of the azole family. [37] [38]

Leprosy is a chronic infection of skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae . Almost 4 million people have been affected by leprosy and nearly 250,000 new cases are still being detected annually throughout the world. WHO recommended multidrug therapy (MDT) which has been the mainstay of treatment for leprosy and in reducing its prevalence to near elimination levels. However, lepra reactions and nerve damage cause significant morbidity among patients affected with leprosy. Apart from well-established treatment with systemic corticosteroids and thalidomide, and many anti-inflammatory and immunomodulator drugs, oral zinc has been found useful in the management of lepra reactions owing to its immunostimulatory properties. Zinc is found to stimulate production of IL-2 and induces a shift from Th2 to Th1 response. It has also been demonstrated to decrease the serum levels of TNF- α and inhibit the TNF- α induced apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells that helps in controlling the disease activity and reactional states [ 14 ]. In a study comprising patients of recurrent erythema nodosum leprosum additionally receiving zinc, the steroids could be tapered off completely and the duration and severity of reaction were also reduced [ 15 ]. Addition of oral zinc to antileprosy treatment too has been shown to improve therapeutic outcome. Oral zinc when given as an adjuvant to dapsone in lepromatous leprosy induced rapid lepromin conversion and bacterial clearance in the patients as compared to the control group. The clinical improvement was also faster in patients receiving zinc as an adjuvant along with standard MDT [ 16 ]. Oral zinc perhaps makes an adjuvant of choice in leprosy treatment.

A Roman naturalist named Pliny the Elder discovered the healing power of black walnuts in the first century . Herbalist Nicholas Culpeper prescribed walnut to draw poisonous venom from snake and spider bites in the 17th century. Native Americans used the bark, leaves, husk and nuts from black walnut trees medicinally, particularly as a mosquito repellant and to treat skin conditions and psychological disorders. They were also the first to use hulls as a natural laxative and for eliminating parasites in the intestine, which is the most commonly implemented today.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world.  The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community.  The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.   Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.

Zinc undecylenate tinea versicolor

zinc undecylenate tinea versicolor

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world.  The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community.  The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.   Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.

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zinc undecylenate tinea versicolor

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