Although “metal fume fever” has been reported after exposure to zinc oxide, this syndrome is seen following exposure to extremely high concentrations in the occupational setting and is not relevant to exposures from zinc borate-treated upholstered furniture. A number of deaths have been reported in humans following inhalation exposure to airborne mixtures containing very high concentrations of zinc. Ten out of 70 people died within 4 d of exposure to a smoke mixture containing approximately 33,000 mg Zn 2+ /kg as zinc chloride, in addition to unknown concentrations of hexachloroethane, calcium silicate, and an igniter (Evans 1945, as cited in ATSDR 1994). Milliken et al. (1963, as cited in ATSDR 1994) and Hjortso et al. (1988) reported fatalities after exposure to high, but unknown concentrations of a smoke mixture generated from zinc chloride smoke bombs. Autopsies revealed diffuse micro vascular obliteration, widespread occlusion of the pulmonary arteries, and extensive interstitial and intra-alveolar fibrosis of the lungs (Hjortsu et al. 1988). Although zinc oxide is associated with metal fume fever, and a large amount of research has been carried out in that area, those results are not a focus of this report because exposure to such fumes created by welding are not relevant to our exposure scenario.